Estrogen-progestin therapy. Treating menopausal symptoms with estrogen and progestin together is known as estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) or combined hormone therapy. Although estrogen alone improves the symptoms of menopause, it increases the risk of cancer of the uterus ( endometrial cancer).
Table 6: Blood estrogen levels and breast cancer risk. Before menopause, they are produced mainly in the ovaries. After menopause, they are produced mainly in fat tissue. Because of the different sources (and different levels) of estrogen in women before and after menopause, it’s important to look at studies of estrogen and breast cancer risk by menopausal status.
The risk of endometrial cancer was not increased by estrogen-progestin therapy in the study. Tamoxifen, an agent that can reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, can also cause endometrial cancer due to its similar effect on the endometrial lining.
Using Vaginal Estrogen Not Linked to High Breast Cancer Risk. Overall, the study includes information from more than 161,608 postmenopausal women who were ages 50 to 79 when they joined from 1993 to 1998. The WHI wants to find any links between health, diet, and lifestyle factors and health problems such as cancer.
Estrogen, the sex hormone. Estrogen is one of the two major female sex hormones, although it is also present in men in smaller amounts. Estrogen is produced mainly in the ovaries, as well as in fatty tissue, and in the adrenal glands, which are the source of estrogen in men.
Estrogen also promotes water retention whereas progesterone is a natural diuretic – which is one of the reasons women who are low in progesterone have greater PMS symptoms. And when there is unopposed estrogen because of a deficiency in progesterone levels, there is an increased risk of developing cancer.
Jan 28, 2015 · The magnitude of the associations of estrogens with a number of breast cancer risk factors including obesity, reproductive, demographic, and life style factors has been investigated by the Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group in several studies.
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Use of estrogen plus progestin doubled the risk of developing dementia among postmenopausal women age 65 and older (5). Stroke, blood clots, and heart attack. Women who took either combined hormone therapy or estrogen alone had an increased risk of stroke, blood clots, and heart attack (1, 3).
A woman on hormone therapy usually takes both estrogen and progestin. Women who have had a hysterectomy can take estrogen alone. Estrogen relieves hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms. However, taking estrogen alone can increase your risk of developing uterine cancer.
The risks of hormone therapy may also vary depending on whether estrogen is given alone or with progestin, the dose and type of estrogen, and other health factors such as your risks of heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease, cancer risks, and family medical history.